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    Warfarin for atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic kidney disease – does the thromboembolic benefit outweigh the bleeding risk?

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) predisposes to high risks for both thrombo-embolism and bleeding. As a result, understanding the risk-benefit profile for use of anticoagulation therapies among CKD patients with atrial fibrillation is important to optimize patient outcomes. However, clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety of anti-coagulants for atrial fibrillation generally exclude CKD patients and observational studies have had conflicting results. Accordingly, this prospective cohort study of 24,317 atrial fibrillation patients admitted with myocardial infarction in Sweden examined the association between warfarin therapy and patient outcomes by stage of CKD. Warfarin was prescribed in 21.8% patients and CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<60 mL/min/1.73m2) was present in 51.7%. Compared with patients not treated with warfarin, the risk-adjusted composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke was lower at 1 year of follow-up among patients treated with warfarin, regardless of CKD class. This reduction in thromboembolic events was not offset by an increased risk …

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