Objective To investigate whether severe and recurrent pre-eclampsia increase the risk for long-term maternal atherosclerotic disease.
Study design A population-based study compared the incidence of long-term atherosclerotic morbidity in a cohort of women who delivered in the years 1988–2012. The exposure variable was pre-eclampsia. Mean follow-up duration was 11.2 years. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative incidence of simple, complex (ie, angina pectoris and congestive heart failure, respectively) cardiovascular-related and renal-related hospitalisations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the adjusted HRs for cardiovascular and renal morbidity.
Results During the study, 96 370 patients met the inclusion criteria; 7824 (8.1%) in patients who were diagnosed at least once with pre-eclampsia. Patients with pre-eclampsia had higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity including cardiac non-invasive (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7; p=0.005) and invasive diagnostic procedures (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3; p=0.001), simple (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8; p=0.001), as well as complex cardiovascular events (OR 2.4; 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8; p=0.001) and renal (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.2 to 6.0; p=0.001) hospitalisations. A significant linear association was noted between the severity of pre-eclampsia (no pre-eclampsia, mild pre-eclampsia, severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) and cardiovascular (2.7% vs 4.5% vs 5.2% vs 5.7%, respectively; p=0.001), as well as renal disease (0.1% vs 0.2% vs 0.5% vs 1.1%, respectively; p=0.001). Likewise, a linear association was found between the number of previous pregnancies with pre-eclampsia (no pre-eclampsia, one event and ≥2 events of pre-eclampsia) and risk for future simple cardiovascular disease (1.2% vs 1.6% vs 2.2%, respectively; p=0.001), complex cardiovascular disease (1.3% vs 2.7% vs 4.6%, respectively; p=0.001) and total cardiovascular hospitalisations (2.7% vs 4.4% vs 6.0%, respectively; p=0.001). Using a Kaplan–Meier survival curve, patients with pre-eclampsia had significantly higher cumulative incidence of atherosclerotic-related hospitalisations. In a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders such as maternal age, parity, diabetes mellitus and obesity, pre-eclampsia remained independently associated with atherosclerotic hospitalisations.
Conclusions Previous pregnancy with pre-eclampsia is an independent risk factor for long-term maternal atherosclerotic morbidity. The risk is more substantial for patients with severe and recurrent episodes of pre-eclampsia.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.