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Correspondence
Loneliness and social isolation and increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: clinical implications
  1. Redford B Williams
  1. Correspondence to Dr Redford B Williams, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3926, Durham, NC 27710, USA; redfordw{at}duke.edu

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To the Editor

The recent meta-analysis published in Heart by Valtorta et al1 showed that loneliness and social isolation are associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in 16 large longitudinal studies conducted in high-income countries. This finding is not surprising given the extensive literature documenting such harmful consequences of social isolation, including a study my research group published in 19922 showing in a large sample of CHD patients that those who were not married and …

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