Echocardiographic patterns in 15 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were compared with those in 30 healthy persons. Correlations with angiocardiographic data indicated that most of the anatomical abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be assessed reliably by echocardiography. These include abnormal mitral valve motion, a reduction of the anteroposterior dimension of the left ventricular outflow tract and of the left and right ventricular cavities, increased thickness of the interventricular septum and the posterior left ventricular wall. Comparision of the haemodynamic and echocardiographic data showed that some degree of abnormal mitral valve motion during systole may occur in the absence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. On the other hand, it need not always be present with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Other, hitherto unrecognized, abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy detected by this technique were: (1) Aortic valve regurgitation in three out of nine patients with evidence of left ventricular cutflow tract obstruction at cardiac catheterization. (2) Left ventricular inflow tract obstruction at the mitral valve level associated with gross septal hypertrophy (five cases). (3) Abnormal forward displacement of the posterior mitral valve leaflet and of the chordae tendineae during systole in 10 patients, in seven of whom there was confirmatory angiocardiographic evidence. Seven patients with miscellaneous cardiac disorders are described in whom asymmetric septal hypertrophy was revealed by echocardiography. In one of these patients coexisting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was excluded histologically; thus asymmetrical septal hypertrophy is not confined to patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.