Systemic and pulmonary haemodynamics were studied at rest in the supine and upright position, and during exercise in the sitting position at 75 and 150 Watt, in 13 hypertensive men aged 50-8 +/- 8-7 years before and after 13 months treatment with oral oxprenolol (120 to 160 mg t.i.d.) supplemented by oral hydrallazine (50 to 75 mg t.i.d.) during the last 6 months. Pressures were recorded by means of catheters inserted percutaneously into the pulmonary and brachial artery; cardiac output was determined according to Fick. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of systemic systolic, diastolic, and mean pressures at rest in the supine position and during exercise, and of systolic pressures in the upright posture. Pulmonary systolic and mean pressures increased slightly at rest in the supine position and during exercise, and no changes occurred at rest in the upright position. The left ventricular filling pressure was unchanged at rest both in the supine and upright position; it increased slightly during exercise. The haemodynamic changes by which systemic pressure was reduced were those typical of beta-adrenergic blockade: reduction of cardiac output resulting from a decrease of both heart rate and stroke volume, while the total systemic vascular resistance was unchanged at rest in the supine position but increased in the upright posture and during exercise. The A-V O2 difference increased remarkably. This long-term observation again suggests that the acute haemodynamic effects of an antihypertensive regimen can be modified during long-term application. It did not give evidence of a readjustment of the vascular resistance occurring, at least not in the upright position and during exercise, as has been suggested for long-term beta-adrenergic blockade.