Treatment with vasodilators in heart failure has not always produced a useful improvement in the haemodynamic responses to exercise, and in many cases early drug tolerance has further limited the potential of this type of treatment. In a study to evaluate the efficacy of felodipine, a new calcium antagonist with selective vasodilator properties, in the management of congestive heart failure 10 patients with congestive heart failure underwent treadmill exercise testing before and during oral treatment with felodipine 30 mg daily. At every level of exercise felodipine lowered the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, whereas cardiac index and stroke index increased considerably. The haemodynamic improvement was associated with an increase in the duration of exercise to exhaustion. Importantly, these beneficial effects were sustained throughout four weeks of treatment without evidence of drug tolerance. These observations suggest a useful role for felodipine in the long term management of congestive heart failure.