Twenty nine patients with isolated perimembranous ventricular septal defects were investigated by M mode, cross sectional, and pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid valve anomalies were present in all six patients with a left ventricular-right atrial shunt but in only six (26%) of 23 patients who had interventricular shunts only. Systolic flutter of the tricuspid valve was shown in five (83%) of the six patients with a ventriculoatrial shunt but not in the other patients. Systolic turbulence in both the right ventricle and right atrium was detected by Doppler echocardiography only in patients with ventriculoatrial shunting. A perimembranous ventricular septal defect with left ventricular to right atrial shunt can be diagnosed by its combined M mode, cross sectional, and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic features.