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The aetiology and prognostic implications of reciprocal electrocardiographic changes in acute myocardial infarction.
  1. R Katz,
  2. R M Conroy,
  3. K Robinson,
  4. R Mulcahy

    Abstract

    The relations between reciprocal ST segment depression in the electrocardiogram and infarct size and 10 year prognosis were studied in 315 patients who survived for at least 28 days after a first anterior or inferior myocardial infarction. ST depression was more common in inferior infarcts (72%) than in anterior (37%) ones. It occurred more frequently in complicated infarcts and in the presence of considerable ST elevation. Patients experiencing second or third degree heart block were significantly more likely to show reciprocal changes. The rise in peak cardiac enzyme concentration was higher in patients showing ST depression. In patients with ST depression, peak creatine kinase concentration was 46% higher, aspartate aminotransferase was 39% higher, and lactate dehydrogenase 29% higher after correction for site and complications. A discriminant function analysis selected infarct site, peak aspartate aminotransferase, and magnitude of ST elevation as predictors of the occurrence of ST depression. Age, severity, and smoking status did not significantly improve discrimination. Despite larger increases in peak enzyme concentrations patients with ST depression had marginally fewer subsequent episodes of unstable angina or fatal or non-fatal infarction and a marginally lower 10 year death rate. Neither difference was statistically significant. ST depression occurring early in the acute phase of myocardial infarction is likely to be a reflection of electrophysiological changes taking place at the site of the infarct that is manifested in the contralateral surface of the heart. Other causes, however, such as transient ischaemia at the site of the reciprocal changes or extension of the infarct to contiguous areas cannot be excluded in all cases.

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