The effect of a two minute cold pressor test on transmitral velocities measured by pulsed Doppler was studied in 11 healthy volunteers. Blood pressure increased significantly during cold immersion but peak atrial and peak early diastolic transmitral velocities and their ratio (A:E) were unchanged. There was no correlation between changes in Doppler variables and changes in calculated mean arterial blood pressure during the test. Heart rate changes were variable and not related to changes in blood pressure. In individual people the change in pulse interval during cold immersion was significantly and inversely correlated with the change in the A:E ratio. The large acute increase in arterial pressure seen during the cold pressor test in normal volunteers had no consistent effect on the transmitral velocity profile although small changes in heart rate were associated with large changes in A:E ratio. The effect of small changes in heart rate may be of considerable importance in determining transmitral velocity profiles. Thus in clinical and experimental studies in which the heart rate is not controlled, Doppler data on transmitral flow should be interpreted with caution.