In 24 (0.98%) of 2457 patients with congenital heart disease the brachiocephalic vein was in an anomalous position below the aortic arch. This is a much higher proportion of such cases than reported so far. This high frequency may arise from differences in the study population and the method of diagnosis. This venous anomaly was more common in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect with pulmonary atresia. Patients with the venous anomaly were more likely to have a right aortic arch. The anomalous course of the brachiocephalic vein from the neck to the junction of the superior vena cava was shown by cross sectional echocardiography. In doubtful cases, Doppler study usually clarified the anatomical arrangement.