Atypical and typical chest pains are common symptoms in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some of these chest pains seem to be caused by ischaemia. It is difficult to objectively demonstrate ischaemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The first line treatment for chest pain considered to be ischaemic in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the use of either a beta blocker or calcium blocker. Septal myectomy can be effective in patients with symptoms refractory to conventional treatment but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently dual chamber pacing has been advocated in such patients. In some cases dual chamber pacing alleviates chest pain in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by an anti-ischaemic action, presumably by reducing the left ventricular outflow tract gradient and perhaps by causing an associated decrease in left ventricular outflow tract gradient and perhaps by causing an associated decrease in left ventricular end diastolic pressure.