Heart 90:1248-1255 doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.026146
  • Review

Autonomic changes in patients with heart failure and in post-myocardial infarction patients

  1. M P Frenneaux
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor Michael P Frenneaux
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK;
  • Accepted 23 January 2004


A range of techniques for the assessment of autonomic tone are described. Impaired baroreflex control of heart period, measured in terms of heart rate variability or baroreflex sensitivity, is independently associated with adverse prognosis in patients with heart failure and following acute myocardial infarction. These techniques have not yet entered routine clinical practice.