Objective: To determine the safety and effectiveness of cutting balloon angioplasty for pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS).
Design and setting: Retrospective review of case notes and cardiac catheterisation data at the Royal Brompton Hospital.
Main outcome measures: Diameter of pulmonary vein, tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity on echocardiogram, and percutaneous oxygen saturation before and after cutting balloon angioplasty.
Results: Three patients had congenital PVS and three had PVS associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. A total of 27 PVSs were treated during 12 catheterisation procedures. Median patient age at the time of procedure was 12.5 months (range 1.5–36 months) and weight was 7.1 kg (range 2.8–11.1 kg). Minimum pulmonary vein diameter increased significantly on angiography after cutting balloon angioplasty, from mean (SD) 2.3 (0.7) mm to 4.2 (1.9) mm, mean of differences 1.9 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 to 2.9 mm, p = 0.0013). Mean (SD) oxygen saturation rose from 79.6 (12.9)% to 83.9 (9.0)%, mean of differences 4.3% (95% CI 0.7% to 8.0%, p = 0.0238). All children’s symptoms improved subjectively. Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity did not change significantly. The longest time interval before repeat intervention was six months. There were no acute deaths; one patient had a small pulmonary haemorrhage and developed a small aneurysm adjacent to the site of angioplasty.
Conclusion: Cutting balloon angioplasty is safe in the palliation of PVS in children. It gives some acute relief but often needs to be repeated, as improvement is rarely sustained.
- PVS, pulmonary vein stenosis
- TAPVC, total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage
- pulmonary vein stenosis
- cutting balloon
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