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The authors’ reply:
  1. K Khadjooi,
  2. P W X Foley,
  3. M Frenneaux,
  4. F Leyva
  1. Department of Cardiology, University of Birmingham, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands, UK
  1. Dr F Leyva, Department of Cardiology, University of Birmingham, Good Hope Hospital, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands B75 7RR, UK; cardiologists{at}hotmail.com

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We are grateful to Drs Gasparini and Regoli for their comments on our paper1 and we congratulate them for their important contribution to this field of research. We shall deal with each point in turn.

First, it is considered surprising that 29% of the participants of this observational study had atrial fibrillation (AF). It is well recognised that AF is present in 10–25% of patients with heart failure in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II–III and in up to 50% of patients in NYHA class IV.2 Given that 93/295 (32%) of patients in our …

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