The right ventricular apex (RVA) has been the elective site for placing endocardial pacing leads since 1959 when Furman described the use of the transvenous route for pacemaker implantation. This site was used because it is easily accessible, readily identified and associated with a stable position and reliable chronic pacing parameters. It was recognised, however, that pacing from the RVA did not reproduce normal ventricular conduction or contraction. With the advent of reliable active fixation leads, alternative right ventricular sites became accessible and began to be explored. In this review, the detrimental effects of RVA pacing are outlined, the right ventricular outflow tract is defined and the evidence for selective site pacing is discussed.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.