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Heart 95:715-720 doi:10.1136/hrt.2008.151985
  • Original article
  • Heart rhythm disorders and pacemakers

Risk factors and time delay associated with cardiac device infections: Leiden device registry

  1. J C Lekkerkerker1,
  2. C van Nieuwkoop2,
  3. S A Trines1,
  4. J G van der Bom3,
  5. A Bernards4,
  6. E T van de Velde1,
  7. M Bootsma1,
  8. K Zeppenfeld1,
  9. J W Jukema1,
  10. J-W Borleffs1,
  11. M J Schalij1,
  12. L van Erven1
  1. 1
    Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  2. 2
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  3. 3
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  4. 4
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  1. Dr Martin J Schalij, Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, PO box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands; m.j.schalij{at}lumc.nl
  • Accepted 28 October 2008
  • Published Online First 26 November 2008

Abstract

Aims: A nested case-control study of 75 patients with cardiac device infections (CDI) and 75 matched controls was conducted to evaluate time course, risk factors, culture results and frequency of CDI.

Methods and results: CDI occurred in 75/3410 (2.2%) device implantation and revision procedures, performed between 2000 and 2007. The time delay between device procedure and infection ranged from 0 to 64 months (mean 14 (SD 16)), 21 patients (28%) had an early infection (<1 month), 26 (35%) a late infection (1–12 months) and 28 (37%) a delayed infection (>12 months). Of interest, 18 (24%) patients presented with an infection >24 months after the device-related procedure. Time delay until infection was significantly shorter when cultures were positive for micro-organisms compared to negative cultures (8 (12) vs 18 (18) months, p = 0.03). Pocket cultures in delayed infections remained more often negative (61% vs 23%, p = 0.01). Independent CDI risk factors were: device revision (odds ratio (OR) 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.51 to 8.96), renal dysfunction defined as glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min (OR 4.64; CI, 1.48 to 14.62) and oral anticoagulation use (OR 2.83; CI 1.20 to 6.68).

Conclusion: CDI occurred in 2.2% of device procedures, with 24% occurring more than two years after the device-related procedure. Renal dysfunction, device revisions and oral anticoagulation are potent risk factors for CDI.

Footnotes

  • Funding: None

  • Competing interests: None.