Lone atrial fibrillation: what do we know?
- Dariusz Kozlowski1,
- Szymon Budrejko1,
- Gregory Y H Lip2,
- Jacek Rysz3,
- Dimitri P Mikhailidis4,
- Grzegorz Raczak1,
- Maciej Banach5
- 1Department of Cardiology and Electrotherapy, Second Chair of Cardiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland
- 2University Department of Medicine, City Hospital, Birmingham, UK
- 3Department of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
- 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Campus, University College Medical School, University College London, London, UK
- 5Department of Hypertension, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
- Correspondence to Associate professor Maciej Banach, Department of Hypertension, University Hospital No 2 Lodz, Medical University of Lodz, Poland, Zeromskiego 113, Lodz 90-549, Poland;
- Accepted 28 July 2009
- Published Online First 26 August 2009
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. Despite the common association of AF with cardiovascular disease, some patients can be classified as ‘lone AF’. The latter is essentially a diagnosis of exclusion, and should be preceded by careful evaluation, including thorough collection of medical history, physical examination, blood pressure measurement, laboratory tests, ECG, echocardiography and, possibly, chest x-ray and exercise testing. Lone AF patients were initially thought to have a good prognosis with respect to thromboembolism and mortality, compared with the general AF population, but more recent data suggest otherwise. This review focuses on the clinical epidemiology and management aspects of lone AF, as well as various associated novel risk factors, such as familial, genetic and socioeconomic factors, alcohol, sports activity and biochemical markers.
- atrial fibrillation
- lone atrial fibrillation
- atrial arrhythmias
- heart rate variability
- atrial fibrillation
Competing interests The authors state no conflict of interest and have received no payment in preparation of this manuscript. No pharmaceutical company supported or was involved with the preparation of this article. All authors have no conflicts to disclose.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.