Background Preclinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD) has been defined as subjects with normal systolic function, diastolic dysfunction but no symptoms of heart failure (HF). The clinical phenotype and natural history of the syndrome remains poorly defined. This study's objective was to determine the clinical phenotype and progression to HF in a group of patients with normal systolic function and moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction as determinate by Doppler criteria without any clinical diagnosis of HF according to the Framingham criteria or any symptoms of HF, specifically dyspnoea, oedema or fatigue at the time of echocardiography.
Methods The authors used resources of the Mayo Clinic echocardiography database to consecutively select among patients who had an echocardiogram in 2005, a cohort with moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction by Doppler criteria and EF ≥50%. Patients could not have a diagnosis of HF, or any HF symptoms—specifically dyspnoea, oedema or fatigue—at the time of echocardiography; nor grade 3 or greater valvular dysfunction (except tricuspid valve). A total of 82 patients had their medical chart reviewed. Primary endpoint was the time to the development of (1) HF according to the Framingham criteria or (2) any symptoms of dyspnoea, oedema or fatigue.
Results The mean age of the cohort of PDD subjects was 69±10 years with a female (67%) preponderance. Presence of hypertension was 76%, coronary artery disease was 29%, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was 26%, estimated creatinine clearance <60 ml/min was 51%. The 2-year cumulative probability of development of HF according to the Framingham criteria was 1.9%; however, the 2-year cumulative probability of development of any symptoms was 31.1%. The 2-year cumulative probability for cardiac hospitalisation was 21.2%. Peripheral vascular disease and hypertension were independently associated with increased likelihood for the development of symptoms.
Conclusion The study demonstrates that hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, CAD and renal dysfunction are prevalent in patients with PDD. More importantly, although the progression to the development of clinical HF over 2 years was low, there was a moderate degree of progression to development of symptoms and cardiac hospitalisations over 2 years. Based on the finding that only PVD and hypertension were independently associated with the progression to the development of symptoms in subject with PDD, the authors speculate that ventricular-arterial interaction may be important to the progression of diastolic dysfunction to the development of symptoms.
- Atrial fibrillation
- diastolic dysfunction
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Funding This work was supported from grants from the National Institutes of Health (HL76611-04-P40) and the Mayo Foundation, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases.
Conflict of interests None.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Mayo Clinic IRB.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.