Clinical prediction model for death prior to appropriate therapy in primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with ischaemic heart disease: the FADES risk score
- Johannes B van Rees1,
- C Jan Willem Borleffs1,
- Guido H van Welsenes1,
- Enno T van der Velde1,
- Jeroen J Bax1,
- Lieselot van Erven1,
- Hein Putter2,
- Johanna G van der Bom3,
- Martin J Schalij1
- 1Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
- 2Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
- 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
- Correspondence to Dr Martin J Schalij, Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands;
Contributors JBR and CJWB both contributed equally to the writing of the manuscript. GHW, CJWB and ETV collected all relevant data. JJB, LE and MJS supervised this project. HP and JGB helped by analysing the data; they suggested specific statistical tests and conducted bootstrap analyses.
- Accepted 4 February 2012
Objectives To construct a risk score out of baseline variables to estimate the risk of death without prior implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in primary prevention ICD patients with ischaemic heart disease.
Design Retrospective cohort study.
Setting Tertiary care facility in The Netherlands.
Patients All patients with ischaemic heart disease who received an ICD for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death at the Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands in the period 1996–2009.
Main outcome measure All-cause mortality without prior appropriate ICD therapy (anti-tachycardia pacing or shock).
Results 900 patients (87% men, mean age 64±10 years) were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 669 days (IQR 363–1322 days), 150 patients (17%) died and 191 (21%) patients received appropriate device therapy. 114 (13%) patients died without prior appropriate therapy. Stratification of the risk for death without prior appropriate therapy resulted in risk categorisation of patients as low, intermediate or high risk. NYHA ≥III, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25% and a history of smoking were significant independent predictors of death without appropriate ICD therapy. 5-year cumulative incidence for death without prior appropriate therapy ranged from 10% (95% CI 6% to 16%) in low-risk patients to 41% (95% CI 33% to 51%) in high-risk patients.
Conclusions The risk of death without prior appropriate ICD therapy can be predicted in primary prevention ICD patients with ischaemic heart disease, which facilitates patient-tailored risk estimation.
- Implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- primary prevention
- risk score
- ischaemic heart disease
- sudden death
- sudden adult death syndrome
- ventricular tachycardia
- cardiac function
- coronary artery disease
- heart failure
- sick sinus syndrome
- atrial arrhythmias
- radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
- ventricular tachycardia
- sudden cardiac death
- arrhythmic right ventricular dyplasia
- invasive electrophysiology
- radiofrequency catheter ablation
- invasive cardiology
See Editorial, p 833
Competing interests JJB received research grants from Boston Scientific, Medtronic, Biotronik and St Jude. MJS received research grants from Biotronik, Medtronic and Boston Scientific.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.