Current modalities for invasive and non-invasive monitoring of volume status in heart failure
- 1Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- 2Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- 3Department of Cardiology B, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
- Correspondence to Professor H Krum, Monash Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia;
Contributors Both TGVL and HK contributed to the paper. TGVL drafted and wrote the manuscript. HK helped draft the manuscript and revised its content.
- Received 2 November 2011
- Revised 1 March 2012
- Accepted 4 March 2012
- Published Online First 9 May 2012
Heart failure (HF) represents a major health and economic burden worldwide. In spite of best current therapy, HF progresses with unpredictable episodes of deterioration that often require hospitalisation. These episodes are often preceded by accumulation or redistribution of fluid causing haemodynamic overload on the heart. Remote and telemonitoring of the HF patient, assessing symptoms and signs, thoracic impedance derived fluid status follow-up or direct haemodynamic measurements with chronic implanted devices are presently under investigation for the potential to detect impending HF decompensation early. The current evidence for volume status monitoring in HF using those novel management strategies is reviewed.
Funding TGVL is supported by a post-doctoral research grant from South-Eastern Norwegian Health Authorities.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.