Ankle pressures in UK South Asians with diabetes mellitus: a case control study
- Kirti Kain1,2,
- Michael Brockway1,
- Tasneem Ishfaq1,
- Minnie Merrick1,
- Hadiyah Mahmood1,
- Joseph C Ingoe1,
- Graham Richard Law3,
- Soroush Sohrabi1,2,
- Stephen Wheatcroft1,2,
- D Julian A Scott1,2
- 1Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, LIGHT, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
- 2Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, LIGHT, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
- 3Division of Biostatistics, LIGHT, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
- Correspondence to Dr Kirti Kain, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, LIGHT Labs, University of Leeds, Level 7, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK;
- Received 15 October 2012
- Revised 21 December 2012
- Accepted 29 January 2013
- Published Online First 26 February 2013
Objectives To study ethnic differences in ankle pressures in South Asians versus Europeans and in those with and without diabetes mellitus (DM).
Design Case control.
Setting Primary care.
Participants 391(DM=154) South Asian and 252(DM=72) European adults.
Main outcome measures Systolic blood pressure of the left (L) and right (R) brachial, posterior tibial (PT) and dorsalis pedis (DP) arteries were measured using a Doppler probe.
Results In comparison with Europeans, in young South Asians, DM was diagnosed 12 years earlier but pressures were lower, p≤0.0001 for all (RPT (146 vs 157 mm Hg), LPT (143 vs 154 mm Hg), RDP (138 vs 150 mm Hg) and LDP (137 vs 149 mm Hg)). Pack year was greater in Europeans. Odds ratios of cardiovascular disease in relation to ankle pressure were increased in South Asians with ankle brachial index between 0.9 and 1.3 or >1.3. Linear regression in South Asians identified age was an independent predictor of increased pedal pressures, DM of increased RPT and LDP, and sex of LPT and LDP. In Europeans, age was an independent predictor of increased pedal pressures, and sex and pack years were independent predictors of decreased pedal pressures. In South Asians, all ankle pressure and in Europeans, RPT, LPT and LDP were increased in subjects with DM versus without. Ankle pressures and cardiovascular disease in South Asians with DM were similar to those of 10 years older Europeans with DM.
Conclusions South Asians with DM had higher ankle pressures versus without and were similar to 10 years older Europeans with DM. Prospective studies on ankle pressures for development of diabetes or cardiovascular disease are warranted in South Asians.