Objectives To investigate the clinical and angiographic characteristics of peri-menopausal female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods We retrospectively analysed the clinical and angiographic data of 1449 peri-menopausal female patients who underwent coronary angiography at Cangzhou Central Hospital from January 2007 to June 2010. Patients were divided into two groups based on the result of coronary angiography as coronary artery disease group (n = 589) and normal coronary artery group (n = 860). The coronary artery disease group was divided into pre-menopausal CAD group (n = 167) and post-menopausal CAD group (n = 422).
Results Age, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipemia, smoking, parental history of premature CAD and menopausal are risk factors of CAD in peri-menopausal female patients. Pre-menopausal CAD patients were less likely to have a history of hypertension, hyperlipemia and diabetes, more likely to have parental history of premature CAD and tobacco use, more likely to be unstable angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction, had less double or multi-vessel and type B or C coronary lesions, when compared with post-menopausal CAD group. The percentage of patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and treated with clopidogrel, statins, ACEI and hypoglycemic drugs in pre-menopausal CAD group was less than that in post-menopausal CAD group.
Conclusions The severity and complexity of coronary lesions in pre-menopausal CAD patients was less than that in post-menopausal CAD patients. However, the percentage of patients with unstable angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction in pre-menopausal female CAD group was more than that in post-menopausal CAD group. The percentage of patients who received revascularisation or treated with drugs in pre-menopausal CAD group was less than that in post-menopausal CAD group. This helps explain the high mortality and poor prognosis in pre-menopausal CAD group.