Objectives The usefulness of daunorubicin in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia patients is limited by their cardiotoxicity. Current prophylaxis relies upon early detection of systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction. Dexrazoxane reduces cardiac damage during treatment with daunorubicin. The purpose of this study was to assess the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia who had treated with daunorubicin alone or combined with dexrazoxane.
Methods Forty two patients undergoing a 3-cycle chemotherapy regimen were divided into two groups: daunorubicin group (n = 22), the patients only received daunorbicin: daunorubicin with dexrazoxane group (n = 20), the patients received daunorbicin and dexrazoxane. Echocardiographic evaluations were performed to assess left ventricle systolic and diastolic function.
Results There were no significant differences in left ventricle ejection faction (LVEF), diastolic wave ratio E/A throughout all phases of the treatment between two groups. However, compared with daunorubicin and dexrazoxane group, tissue Doppler index, E’/A’ was decreased after treatment (0.98 ± 0.24 to 1.09 ± 0.10, P = 0.04) and Tei index was prolonged (0.49 ± 0.11 to 0.34 ± 0.04, P<0.001) in daunorubicin group.
Conclusions Dexrazoxane can prevent daunorbicin cardiotoxicity in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia patients. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler index E’/A’ and tei index may be the sensitive markers for detecting early daunorbiicn-induced cardiotoxiciy.
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