Objectives To explore the effects of Qishen Granule, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on hemodynamics in a mini pig model of cardiac functional insufficiency and qi-deficiency and blood stasis syndrome induced by Ameroid constricting ring. Moreover, the therapeutic effects in improving the symptoms were also studied.
Methods Establishment and assessment of a qi-deficiency and blood stasis syndrome model with cardiac functional insufficiency experimental mini pigs (20 ± 5 kg) were instrumented with a size-matched Ameroid constrictor on the anterior descending branch under general anaesthesia in sterile conditions. Sham group didn’t place the Ameroid constrictor, the other were the same to the model group. And the experimental mini pigs of animal models were randomly divided into model group, positive control (Qishenyiqi pill) group, positive control (digoxin tablet) group, Qishen granule group with different dose with 6 in each group, sham operation group with 6 at the end of the experiment. 3 weeks after the operations, the animals were assessed with echocardiography and electrocardiogram test, and also collected the four diagnostics information. The day after the 3 weeks assessment, the animals in different groups received different treatments. All the therapeutic drugs stirred well respectively with their normal feed then delivered for 8 weeks. The pigs were dynamically observed the echocardiography and four diagnostics information after treatments. At the end of the experiment also 8 weeks after the treatments, the pigs were received the hemodynamic tests under general anaesthesia in sterile conditions.
Results After 8weeks, pigs in the Qishen granules groups and the positive control groups were more active than pigs in the model group. Compared with pigs in the sham-operated group, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of the model group decreased significantly (P < 0.01); pigs in the Qishen granules groups and the positive control groups showed significant improvement on SBP, DBP and MAP (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In vertricular hemodynamic, left vertricular systolic pressure (LVSP), maximal rate of left vertrcular systolic pressure (+ dP/dt max) and maximal rate of left ventricular diastolic blood pressure (-dP/dt max) of the model group were significantly down-regulated when compared with the sham-operated group (P < 0.05); the Qishen granules group with a high does and sodium digoxin tablet increased the LVSP, +dP/dt max and-dP/dt max (p < 0.05), and thus improved ventricular hemodynamic in pigs with cardiac functional insufficiency. Compared with pigs in the sham-operated group, left ventricular ejection time (LVET) of the model group decreased. Compared with the model group, medication administration groups showed no significant difference. And myocardial oxygen consumption is based on heart rate (HR), MAP, LVET multiplied by three to count. Compared with pigs in the sham-operated group, the myocardial oxygen consumption of the model group and sodium digoxin tablet significantly increased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05).
Conclusions The Qishen granules groups can strengthen left ventricular contractile force, especially the Qishen granules group with a high does can increase LVSP, +dP/dt max and-dP/dt max SBP and DBP, and MAP, and improve the hemodynamic indicators in pigs with cardiac functional insufficiency after myocardial infarction. The Qishen granules can also relieve the symptoms of qi deficiency and blood stasis syndrome.