Objectives Increasing evidences indicated that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) can stay survive, then gradually proliferate and differentiate into myocardial cells after transplanted into damaged areas and improve function of heart.
Methods In this article, ADMSCs were isolated from adipose tissue of Wistar rats and cultured. When treated with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), ADMSCs were differentiated into myocardial cells, then we implant these cells into myocardium of rats of DCM to observe cell population and differentiation and compare cardiac function and hemodynamics changes before and after transplantation.
Results The expression of Cardiac-specific markers indicated that ADMSCs which were isolated from adipose tissue of Wistar rats can differentiate into various cell types. Meanwhile, the treatment group displayed a higher level of LVESP, left ventricular intraventricular pressure (+dp/dt max), left ventricular intraventricular pressure (-dp/dtmax) and left ventricular EF (%) than the control group. Altogether, these results indicate that heart systolic and diastolic function of rats of DCM was significantly improved meanwhile ventricular dilatation remodelling was inhibited after ADMSCs transplantation. Therefore, this research provides an experimental basis for further clinical application of ADMSCS transplantation for the treatment of DCM and non-ischaemic HF.
Conclusions In our results, the LVESP, internal pressure of Left ventricular (+ dp/dtmax) and right ventricular (-dp/dtmax),and Left ventricular EF of treatment groups after 4-week cell transplantation were higher than those of control group, however, the LVEDP, LVEDV and LVESV were evidently lower. These changes hint us that implanting ADMSCS into myocardium of DCM rats can prevent DCM Ventricular dilatation remodeling and effectively improve Cardiac Systolic and Diastolic function. In addition, we also prove that ADMSCs transplanted into myocardium can differentiate into myocardial cells and vascular endothelial cells even without 5-aza induction. Above all, stem cell transplantation can effectively improve Cardiac Systolic and Diastolic function of part or whole heart, furthermore, no malignant ventricular arrhythmias, infection and Immune rejection have been found after transplantation. There were also no osteoblasts, tumor cells and vascular tumor-like change reported in Histological examination. These results demonstrate that ADMSCs transplantation is an effective and safety method of treatment for congestive heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms that how transplanted cells can improve cardiac function remain largely unknown and a further investigation is still needed.