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Feasibility and clinical decision-making with 3D echocardiography in routine practice.
  1. James L Hare (j.hare{at}
  1. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
    1. Carly Jenkins (c.jenkins{at}
    1. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
      1. Satoshi Nakatani (nakatas{at}
      1. National Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka, Japan
        1. Akio Ogawa
        1. National Cardiovascular Centre, Osaka, Japan
          1. Cheuk-Man Yu
          1. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
            1. Thomas H Marwick (t.marwick{at}
            1. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia


              Objective Assess feasibility and potential impact of routine 3D echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and volumes on clinical decision making.

              Methods Patients referred to three hospital-based echocardiography laboratories underwent 2D echocardiography (2DE) and 3D echocardiography (3DE). Feasibility was assessed in a group of 168 unselected patients and decision-making assessed within an expanded group of 220 patients. The time for acquisition and measurement was obtained. Feasibility was defined by ability to measure LV parameters. The potential of 3DE to alter clinical decisions based on 2DE was evaluated by the ability to identify four clinically-relevant measurement thresholds: 1) LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) >50ml/m2 (indication for surgery in regurgitant valve disease); 2) LVESV >30ml/m2 (prognosis after infarction); 3) LVEF<35% (indication for implantable defibrillator); and 4) LVEF<40% (indication for heart failure treatment).

              Results 3DE was technically feasible in 83% of unselected patients. The additional time for 3D acquisition and measurement was available in 184 patients and was 5.4iÀ2.0 minutes. The use of 3DE changed categorization in between 6-11% of patients. Within threshold categories, 3D reallocated 17.5% (11/63) of patients with LVEF <35%, 16.1% (13/81) for LVEF <40%, 12.4% (13/105) for LVESV>30ml/m2 and 8.5% (5/59) for LVESV>50ml/m2. The majority of impact of 3D was within 10ml/m2 of selected volume thresholds (iY75%) and 10% of EF thresholds (>80%).

              Conclusion Measurement of LV volumes and ejection fraction by 3DE is clinically feasible and has the potential to significantly alter clinical decision making.

              • Left ventricular volumes
              • ejection fraction
              • three-dimensional echocardiography
              • two-dimensional echocardiography

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