The concept of intravascular stent implantation was first described by Dotter et al in 1969 in an animal model.1 However, balloon expendable intravascular stenting was not carried out until 2 decades later after improvements in stent design and technology. Clinical trials were first performed in the late 80s in adults with coronary artery obstructions.2 Soon, Dr Mullins and other paediatric interventionalists adopted the Palmaz stent designed by Dr Julio Palmaz for iliac, biliary, renal and intrahepatic porta-caval shunt. They used it in virtually all vascular obstructions associated with congenital heart diseases.3 In 1992, stenting was first applied in right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) conduit obstruction resistant to balloon angioplasty.4 More extensive clinical experience demonstrated that stenting effectively prolongs RVOT conduit lifespan.5 Recent advances in balloon-expendable stent technology provided through valved stents a novel therapy for both RVOT conduit obstruction and regurgitation.6
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