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Prognostic implications of hypoglycemic episodes during hospitalisation for myocardial infarction in patients with type 2 diabetes. A report from the DIGAMI 2 trial.
  1. Linda G Mellbin (linda.mellbin{at}karolinska.se)
  1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
    1. Klas Malmberg
    1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
      1. Anders Waldenström
      1. University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden
        1. Hans Wedel
        1. Nordic School of Public Health, Sweden
          1. Lars Rydén
          1. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

            Abstract

            Objective: To explore if hypoglycaemic episodes during hospitalisation influence the subsequent prognosis in patients with diabetes and acute myocardial infarction.

            Design, setting and patients: Within the framework of the clinical trial DIGAMI 2 hypoglycaemic episodes (blood glucose <3.0 mmol/l ± symptoms) were recorded in 1253 patients (mean age 68 years; 67% males) with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction. The patients were followed during a median of 2.1 years. A total of 947 patients were randomised to an initial insulin infusion while 306 received routinely used glucose lowering therapy.

            Main outcome measures: Unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, smoking, previous infarction, heart failure, renal function, diabetes duration, coronary interventions, pharmacological treatment and B-glucose at hospital admission) Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for total mortality and cardiovascular events (death, reinfarction or stroke) were related to hypoglycaemic episodes during the index hospitalisation.

            Results: During the first 24 hours hypoglycaemic episodes were noted in 111 (12%) of insulin-treated (symptomatic 23%) and 3 (1.0%) of routinely treated patients (symptomatic 33%). Symptomatic hypoglycaemia related to mortality (unadjusted HR 1.99; 95%CI 1.20-3.29; p=0.0074) but this difference disappeared following adjustment (HR 1.09; 95%CI 0.64-1.87; p=0.7403). Body weight (OR 0.97; 95%CI 0.95-0.98; p<0.0001) and diabetes duration (OR 1.03; 95%CI 1.01-1.05; p=0.0085) were independent predictors of hypoglycaemia.

            Conclusions: Hypoglycaemia during the initial hospitalisation was not an independent risk factor for future morbidity or mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and myocardial infarction. Such episodes were, however, more prevalent in patients at high risk for other reasons.

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