Myocarditis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disorder that may lead to acute and/or chronic dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Viruses are the most common pathogens associated with myocarditis and may cause cardiac injury by direct damage or through the immune and autoimmune reaction that follows viral infection. Antivirals including pleconaril and interferon beta have been used to treat acute and chronic viral myocarditis in small case series. Most therapeutic strategies that have targeted post-viral and autoimmune inflammation have sought to inhibit adaptive immune components including anti-heart antibodies and T lymphocytes in the setting of lymphocytic or giant cell myocarditis.
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