Exposure to ambient air pollution is increasingly recognised as a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Associations between exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate air pollution and cardiovascular mortality are consistently demonstrated in a number of large-scale epidemiological studies . These reported associations have even withstood legal challenge in the United States of America where industry representatives attempted to sue the US Environment Protection Agency after this evidence was used to impose strict air quality standards. An independent review of the evidence by the Health Effects Institute reaffirmed these associations and the case was lost [2, 3].
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