Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that is abundantly present in human plasma.[1, 2] Adiponectin levels are highest in lean individuals, but levels decline as body mass increases. Work in experimental models has shown that adiponectin mediates beneficial actions in cardiovascular and metabolic-associated diseases. For example, in mouse models, adiponectin modulates hypertrophic signals in the heart and exhibits direct anti-hypertrophic properties; in addition to improving vascular function and pathological remodeling.[3, 4] Despite the agreement and consistency of experimental studies on adiponectin, a number of clinical findings have questioned the utility of this adipokine as a biomarker for human diseases. On one hand, depressed adiponectin levels have been associated with greater cardiovascular risk and inflammation since hypoadiponectinemia occurs in coronary artery disease, hypertension and insulin resistance.[5-8] On the other hand, high adiponectin levels are present in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease independent of adiposity. In addition, chronic systolic heart failure is associated with elevated adiponectin levels.[10-13] Now, Unno and colleagues report that adiponectin levels are elevated in non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with diastolic dysfunction. [*Journal Add Reference*].
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