Cognitive impairment in cardiac patients may interfere with disease management. This review describes studies examining specific cognitive impairments in cardiac patients and studies that investigate the link between echocardiographic and cognitive measures. Executive function impairments were frequently reported in different patient groups. Also, lower cardiac output and worse left ventricular diastolic function are linked to executive function deficits. In cardiac patients, special attention should be paid to these executive function impairments in view of their role in disease management and independent living. Interventions that stimulate executive function should be encouraged and integrated in cardiac treatment protocols.
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- Cardiac diseases
- heart failure
- cardiac output
- cardiac function
- angiotensin receptor blockers
- atrial fibrillation
- contrast echocardiography
- echocardiography (three-dimensional)
- myocardial infarction
- stress echocardiography
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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