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Utility of real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography for patent foramen ovale closure
  1. Colin Cunnington,
  2. Simon A Hampshaw,
  3. Vaikom S Mahadevan
  1. Department of Cardiology, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vaikom S Mahadevan, Department of Cardiology, Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK; vaikom.mahadevan{at}cmft.nhs.uk

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Recently, many interventional centres have adopted intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) in preference to transoesophageal echocardiography to guide percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. ICE obviates the need for general anaesthesia, facilitating earlier hospital discharge, and gives superior imaging capability, particularly of the inferior interatrial septum.1 ,2

The advent of real-time three-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography has been a major technological advance in transoesophageal echocardiography; however until very recently ICE has been limited to two-dimensional (2D) imaging. RT3D imaging allows for more comprehensive anatomical …

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