Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults
- Yuni Choi1,
- Yoosoo Chang1,2,3,
- Seungho Ryu1,2,3,
- Juhee Cho1,4,5,
- Sanjay Rampal5,6,
- Yiyi Zhang5,
- Jiin Ahn1,
- Joao A C Lima7,
- Hocheol Shin1,8,
- Eliseo Guallar5
- 1Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Screening Center, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- 2Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- 3Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- 4Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- 5Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, and Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Julius Centre University of Malaya, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
- 7Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 8Department of Family Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
- Correspondence to Dr Yoosoo Chang, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, 108 Pyung dong, Jongro-Gu, Seoul, 110-746, Republic of Korea;
- Received 15 August 2014
- Revised 8 January 2015
- Accepted 15 January 2015
- Published Online First 2 March 2015
Objective To investigate the association between regular coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic men and women.
Methods This cross-sectional study included 25 138 men and women (mean age 41.3 years) without clinically evident cardiovascular disease who underwent a health screening examination that included a validated food frequency questionnaire and a multidetector CT to determine CAC scores. We used robust Tobit regression analyses to estimate the CAC score ratios associated with different levels of coffee consumption compared with no coffee consumption and adjusted for potential confounders.
Results The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 13.4% (n=3364), including 11.3% prevalence for CAC scores 1–100 (n=2832), and 2.1% prevalence for CAC scores >100 (n=532). The mean ±SD consumption of coffee was 1.8±1.5 cups/day. The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% CIs) comparing coffee drinkers of <1, 1–<3, 3–<5, and ≥5 cups/day to non-coffee drinkers were 0.77 (0.49 to 1.19), 0.66 (0.43 to 1.02), 0.59 (0.38 to 0.93), and 0.81 (0.46 to 1.43), respectively (p for quadratic trend=0.02). The association was similar in subgroups defined by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, status of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia.
Conclusions In this large sample of men and women apparently free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.