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Rapid diagnostic and therapeutic developments in interventional cardiology over the past 15 years, especially in electrophysiology, have increased the demand for patient sedation. Relief of anxiety and pain and achievement of patient immobility are the main goals of sedation. Sedation is not only useful for making the procedure acceptable to the patient but also ensures a higher likelihood of procedural success. Successful ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation is related primarily to the skill and the patience of the electrophysiologist, but also to appropriate sedation of the patient maintained for a long time. The target level of sedation is often minimal or moderate (ie, conscious sedation), but, in a number of cases, deep sedation is reached. In this case, an identical level of care is required to that needed for general anaesthesia. The major issue …
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