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A 21-year-old, previously healthy, woman presents to the emergency department with 2 months of dyspnoea on exertion. She is short of breath walking up a flight of stairs. She has a history of intravenous drug use and takes no medications. Family history is negative for cardiac disease. Heart rate is 110 bpm and blood pressure is 125/55 mmHg. She has an elevated jugular venous pressure, bibasilar rales, a soft S1 and a systolic in addition to a diastolic murmur. Shortly after initial presentation in the emergency department, she is intubated for respiratory failure. A transthoracic echocardiogram is obtained (figure 1).
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