eLetters

143 e-Letters

published between 2014 and 2017

  • Cardioprotective effects of enkephalins and potential interference from neprilysin inhibitors

    To the Editor, Singh et al¹ refer to cardiocirculatory effects of sacubitril/valsartan beyond those related to the activation of the natriuretic peptide system. Sacubitril, by inhibiting neprilysin (NEP), upregulates various vasoactive peptides, with enkephalins (ENK) performing a major role among them. It is not by chance that PARADIGM-HF trial, which established the novel NEP inhibitor, bestows NEP with the name ‘enkephalinase’, since the latter catalyzes the degradation of ENK. Singh et al¹ concentrate on the sacubitril-related augmentation of substance P, bradykinin and adrenomedullin, while they refrain from referring to ENK. ENK and proenkephalins, their precursors, are endogenous opioids, ligands to delta and kappa opioid receptors (ORs), which are abundant in the neural system as well as in the myocardium. The endogenous opioid system exerts a significant antinociceptive action in the heart, as we deduce by observations in animal and human models². An important field where ENK have already demonstrated their cardioprotective role, is reperfusion-related ischemia, with myocardial infarction, coronary artery by pass and angioplasty constituting the principal clinical equivalents in this setting³. In all the above mentioned conditions, ENK are overexpressed, both in the neural system and locally in the myocardium. ENK action during reperfusion ischaemia is exerted via various pathways. In detail, they increase intracellular Ca²+ levels, while, simultaneously, they ope...

    Show More
  • Older Chinese patients will benefit more from treatment for erectile dysfunction

    We read with great interest this paper which demonstrated erectile dysfunction (ED), not only as a preclinical predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), treatment for ED. But also has a role in a reduced mortality and heart failure hospitalization1.However, a multi-country and region population-based survey indicated that the majority of Asian men have never sought treatment for ED because of cultural factors or sexual conservatism2.
    Unfortunately, this situation is more serious in China. A multi-center investigation of 3327 subjects showed that although the proportion of severe cases (IIEF<8) among the Chinese elderly is the highest in all age groups, most elderly men are reluctant to visit the hospital just for the loss of erectile function (EF). They consider the loss of libido and EF with increasing age to be a natural process of aging3. Moreover, even the old men who seek help for ED were more concerned about the side effects of Western medicine (e.g., PDE5i); only a few of them (19%) used Western medicine as the first choice4. Furthermore, Chinese physicians seldom ask patients about their sexual health during routine consultations, their neglect of the health education about ED also aggravated this vicious circle2, 4.
    Hence, there is a substantial need for promoting Andersson et al 's 1 findings on health education of elderly ED patients in China. The improved awareness and cultural factors would lead more Chinese elderly to visit the hospi...

    Show More
  • Do Beta Blockers really reduce the mortality in patients with HFPEF?

    I do welcome the systemic review and meta-analysis on drug treatment effects on outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, by Dr Zheng and co-workers.(1) I do note the authors' definition of HFPEF as having a left ventricular ejection fraction of >40% as per the suggestions of the American Guidelines.(2) They acknowledge the difficulties posed by those with LVEF 40-49% where the evidence base is largely lacking with the exception of the more recent sub-study of CHARM data in those with LVEF in the above mid-range.(3)
    I have however an issue with their inclusion of the SENIORS study data.(4) Although the mean LVEF of those labelled as HF with preserved LVEF was 49%, the patients included as those with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, were those with LVEF>35%. This calls into question as to whether the positive effect on mortality of beta-blockers in this trial was caused by the impact of including patients with LVEF 35-40% within this group. I am sure that the authors would agree that the positive impact of the beta-blockers on the mortality of patients with LVEF 35-40%, is un-controversial.(4) While another publication from the SENIORS study group found no statistically significant difference between those deemed HFREF and those deemed HFPEF. We do know that the comparison here may be flawed for the above mentioned issue.
    I would therefore, encourage the authors to reconsider their firm conclusion about the effectivenes...

    Show More
  • Is traumatic intracranial hemorrhage a specific risk factor of atrial fibrillation ?

    We read the study of Wei-Shiang Lin et al.[1] with a great interest. In their large-scale cohort retrospective study, they found that traumatic intracranial hemorrhage was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypothesized that inflammation and/or secondary cardiac insult due to the traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause AF. Nevertheless, several points should be discussed. First, acute inflammation is well-known to be related to AF in trauma patients. The risk of new-onset AF is reasonably expected to occur at the acute phase following the trauma. This point has already been previously demonstrated to occur during the days following cardiac surgery or septic shock onset.[2] In the same way, cardiac insult occurs at the very early phase of TBI and the consecutive cardiac systolic dysfunction was reported to be reversible within the first week after the trauma. [3] In this perspective, how to explain that the risk of AF persists one year after the trauma? It would be very helpful if the authors could provide data on the delay between the day of trauma and the day of new-onset AF. Furthermore, inflammation and cardiac dysfunction are related to the TBI severity and it would be valuable to know whether the more severe TBI patients are more prone to develop AF than mild or moderate TBI. Finally, in their statistical model, the authors have taken into account comorbidities which are also known to favor AF. But others factors, such as sepsis and relat...

    Show More
  • Does antibiotic prophylaxis really prevent streptococci infective endocarditis?

    To the Editor,
    We read with interest the work presented by Cahill et al. [1] in which the authors evaluate the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent bacteremia and infective endocarditis in patients undergoing dental procedures. The analysis was performed based on 36 studies, including 21 bacteremia studies, five case controls and cohort studies, and 10 time trend studies.
    It is generally well established that dental cares cause bacteremia, and that most are due to streptococcal strains [1,2]. It is, consequently, reasonable to think that prescribing antibiotics before dental cares decreases the incidence of such bacteremia. Globally, the discordant results between the different kinds of studies analyzed in the paper by Cahill et al. [1] are clearly insufficient to conclude that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents bacteremia due to streptococci. In our view, this observation can be explained by the fact that dental care is not the only cause of streptococcal bacteremia. Indeed, such bacteremia are extremely common, and it has been demonstrated that they can occur after chewing and after brushing in patients with periodontitis (cumulatively in 25% and 20% of cases, respectively) [2]. It is, therefore, fairly unlikely that bacteremias due to dental cares are more responsible for endocarditis than other kinds of bacteremias. In practice, this implies that the only reasonable antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent almost every bacteremia due to oral streptococci wou...

    Show More
  • Chocolate intake and risk of atrial fibrillation

    Chocolate intake and risk of atrial fibrillation

    Dear Editor,

    We have read with great interest the paper “Chocolate intake and risk of clinically apparent atrial
    fibrillation: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study” by Elizabeth Mostofsky and coworkers [1] and we found their conclusion of importance with a view to clinical prevention.

    With reference to the findings reported in the paper, we would like to make the following contribution to the discussion. In a recent analysis performed on 650 healthy women in pre-menopausal age (age range 45-54 years) chocolate intake was higher in women in the low quartile of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (low Med Score). This subgroup of women showed a lower ABI index compared to women with higher Med Score. The analysis of sources of antioxidants showed a greater intake from fruit and vegetables in the higher quartiles of Med Score. Coffee and tea were similarly distributed among the quartiles of Med Score [2]. Analysis from diet recall had the major limitation of missing data regarding out-of-mealtime snacking and drinking.
    In Mediterranean countries, wine is a strong antioxidant source and the synergistic effect of drinking wine during meals and antioxidant bioavailability is well known. We clearly understand that nutritional habits in Northern Europe differ from Mediterranean ones. However, we would like to underline that in a Mediterranean lifestyle characterized by high intake of antioxidants,...

    Show More
  • Machine learning to predict death after cardiac surgery in patients with infective endacarditis: Why not! But, where are the (big) data please?

    The study of Olmos et al., on prediction of in-hospital mortality in patients with active infective endocarditis undergoing cardiac surgery, is of great interest.1
    Indeed, this topic is fascinating because it is complicated to make a choice in so dramatic and not so rare situation.
    To help with this decision-making, the authors proposed a model for predicting hospital mortality: a classic multivariate logistic regression model.
    However, the editorial published with this article evokes in the title a new method: machine learning.2 Machine learning, which is a field of artificial intelligence, has already been used for predicting hospital mortality after elective cardiac surgery.3 This study aimed at comparing a machine learning model, a classic logistic regression model and EuroSCORE II on a cohort including 6,520 patients. The comparison of these models was based on ROC curves and decision curve analysis (DCA).4 Whatever the method of comparison, machine learning model was more accurate than other models.
    Our experience in this area probably allows us to make some comments on this editorial. Considering, the increase of studies comparing machine learning with logistic regression, it is now known that supervised machine learning algorithms improve the prediction of post-operative mortality. However, the size of the cohort used in the present study makes it difficult to apply machine learning algorithms. Indeed, this cohort comprised 671 patients who...

    Show More
  • Liver injury with direct-acting anticoagulants: has the fog cleared?

    To the Editor,
    The timely retrospective US cohort study by Alonso et al.1 assessed the risk of hospitalisations for liver injury after initiation of oral anticoagulation in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, an unresolved safety issue so far.
    This study has key merits. First, it demonstrates the importance of conducting analytical research following safety signals emerging from spontaneous reporting systems2, to confirm or refute the drug-related hypothesis; this allows actual risk assessment and avoids unnecessary alarm, sometimes generated by pharmacovigilance analyses which do not recognize the limits of detected signals.
    Second, it provides a significant contribution to the debate on targeted patients’ selection when prescribing DOACs. In fact, the authors found that hospitalization rates for liver injury were lower among DOAC initiators as compared to patients starting warfarin, with rivaroxaban and dabigatran associated with highest and lowest risk, respectively. They conclude that “dabigatran may be considered a safer option” in patients susceptible of liver complications. In this vulnerable population, our proposal when initiating DOAC administration is to early monitor hepatic enzymes (i.e., within the first month of therapy) and, subsequently, on a yearly basis, especially for rivaroxaban users.3
    Although this study contributes to allay concern on the hepatotoxicity potential of DOACs, a residual aspect deserves attention. The...

    Show More
  • Drowning in a 48-year-old man

    Sir,

    We congratulate McDowell et al. on their educational and interesting case report.1 However, we would like to comment on their use of the term ‘near-drowning’. This, and other confusing and older terms which caused inconsistencies in the literature, have been abandoned by organisations such as the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) who recommend a more structured and clearer way of reporting drowning incidents.2,3 For several years now, drowning has been defined as ‘a process resulting in primary respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. Implicit in this definition is that a liquid/air interface is present at the entrance of the victim’s airway, preventing the victim from breathing air. The victim may live or die after this process, but whatever the outcome, he or she has been involved in a drowning incident’. 2,3 We would thus recommend that the authors and readers of your journal follow ILCOR and WHO recommendations, and simply use the term ‘drowning’ irrespective of the patient outcome. While this may seem pedantic, we do believe that it will assist with standardisation in drowning research and literature.

    References

    1. McDowell K, Carrick D, Weir R. Heart Published Online First: 18 may 2017. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2016-311043.
    2. Idris AH, Berg RA, Bierens J, Bossaert L, Branche CM, Gabrielli A, Graves SA, Handley AJ, Hoelle R, Morley PT, Papa L, Pepe...

    Show More
  • The true value of the NICE guidance

    We read with interest the Editorial on the recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance for the assessment of suspected stable angina (1). The authors raise some salient points regarding the importance of careful history taking, the vexed question of the exercise ECG and the relative merits of the myriad non-invasive tests for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD). However, we believe they have adopted an unnecessarily alarmist tone in their criticisms and feel obliged to respond to several issues.
    Although they suggest that the assessment of pretest probability (PTP) has been disregarded, this process has merely been made implicit rather than explicit. The guidelines emphasise the pivotal importance of the clinical history and, in the setting of suspected angina, the nature of the presenting symptoms is the dominant predictor of CAD. Existing risk tables (2) show that either typical or atypical angina essentially guarantees a PTP of CAD ≥ 10%, the threshold warranting further investigation in the earlier NICE guideline. The residual clinical risk seen in patients with non-anginal symptoms is best addressed through cardiovascular screening approaches with an emphasis of lifestyle modification and primary prevention.
    Second, in arguing against the cost-effectiveness of the new approach, the authors imply that NICE are recommending “universal CTCA” which is incorrect. Non-anginal chest pain occurs in 40-60% of patients pre...

    Show More

Pages