Table 1

Cost-sharing scheme characteristics before and after the July 2012 reform

Study groupsPopulation groupsBefore the reformAfter the reform
Coinsurance (% price)Monthly ceilingCoinsurance (% price)Monthly ceiling
Pensioners groupPensioners (annual income lower than €18 000)0-10€8
Pensioners (annual income between €18000 and €100 000)0-10€18
Pensioners (annual income>€100 000)*0-60€60
Low-income working population (control group)Working population (annual income lower than €18 000)40No ceiling40No ceiling
Middle-income to high-income working populationWorking population (annual income between €18 000 and €100 000)40No ceiling50No ceiling
Working population (annual income>€100 000)40No ceiling60No ceiling
*Pensioners with annual income>€100.000 account for 0.097% of the Spanish population, and in practice this group is barely relevant for analysis.