Table 1

Patient characteristics

CharacteristicWomen (n=456) (n (%))Men (n=535) (n (%))P value
Mean (SD) age, years65.2 (6.5)64.4 (6.6)0.047
Current smoker34 (7.5)99 (18.5)<0.001
Current or past smoker87 (19.1)432 (80.8)<0.001
A history of CAD19 (4.2)56 (10.5)<0.001
Hypertension185 (40.6)215 (40.2)0.902
Diabetes mellitus114 (25.0)171 (32.0)0.016
Dyslipidaemia318 (69.7)372 (69.5)0.944
Mean (SD) body mass index, kg/m223.6 (3.7)24.4 (3.2)<0.001
Overweight and obesity*141 (30.9)204 (38.1)0.018
Oestrogen status†23 (5.0)
Mean (SD) systolic blood pressure, mm Hg134.6 (18.6)134.7 (17.5)0.935
Mean (SD) total cholesterol, mg/dL211.4 (35.1)193.5 (32.7)<0.001
Mean (SD) HDL cholesterol, mg/dL60.8 (15.1)52.4 (12.6)<0.001
Coronary calcium score
 Median (IQR)4 (0–78)60 (1–302)<0.001
 Mean (SD) log transformed‡2.17 (2.32)3.64 (2.56)<0.001
 0204 (44.7)120 (22.4)<0.001
 >0 to <100153 (33.6)180 (33.6)
 100 to <40071 (15.6)122 (22.8)
 ≥40028 (6.1)113 (21.1)
Obstructive CAD99 (21.7)198 (37.0)<0.001
Obstructive CAD in patients with
 CAC=013 (6.4)6 (5.0)<0.001
 CAC >0 to <10034 (22.2)45 (25.0)
 CAC 100 to <40033 (46.5)56 (45.9)
 CAC ≥40019 (67.9)91 (80.5)
  • *Defined as BMI 25  kg/m2 or over.

  • †Oestrogen status was considered positive if women were premenopausal or had oral oestrogen replacement therapy , and negative if they were postmenopausal and were not on oestrogen replacement therapy.

  • ‡Natural logarithm of coronary calcium score + 1 .

  • CAC, coronary artery calcification; CAD, coronary artery disease; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.