Table 2

HR (95% CI) of incident CVD according to nut consumption in Swedish adults, 1998–2014

OutcomeFrequency of nut consumptionPtrend
None1–3/month1–2/week≥3/weekLinearNon-linear
Myocardial infarction
  Cases (n=4983)2962173421374
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.88 (0.83 to 0.93)0.79 (0.69 to 0.91)0.77 (0.61 to 0.96)<0.001<0.001
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)0.88 (0.77 to 1.02)0.86 (0.68 to 1.09)0.040.10
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)0.98 (0.92 to 1.04)0.91 (0.79 to 1.05)0.88 (0.70 to 1.11)0.120.26
Non-fatal myocardial infarction
  Cases (n=4066)2368146618251
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.92 (0.86 to 0.98)0.83 (0.71 to 0.96)0.66 (0.50 to 0.88)<0.0010.01
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.99 (0.92 to 1.06)0.92 (0.79 to 1.08)0.75 (0.57 to 0.99)0.030.31
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.95 to 1.08)0.95 (0.82 to 1.11)0.76 (0.58 to 1.01)0.090.26
Fatal myocardial infarction
  Cases (n=917)5952683123
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.73 (0.63 to 0.84)0.63 (0.44 to 0.91)1.19 (0.78 to 0.80)0.14<0.001
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.82 (0.71 to 0.95)0.72 (0.50 to 1.05)1.32 (0.86 to 2.01)0.780.009
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)0.85 (0.73 to 0.99)0.75 (0.52 to 1.09)1.34 (0.88 to 2.05)0.990.03
Heart failure
  Cases (n=3160)203495011462
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.78 (0.72 to 0.84)0.72 (0.60 to 0.87)0.94 (0.73 to 1.21)0.001<0.001
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.83 (0.77 to 0.90)0.76 (0.63 to 0.92)0.94 (0.73 to 1.22)0.01<0.001
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)0.87 (0.80 to 0.94)0.80 (0.67 to 0.97)0.98 (0.76 to 1.27)0.070.003
Atrial fibrillation
  Cases (n=7550)43722737328113
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.92 to 1.01)0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)0.87 (0.67 to 0.89)0.0020.18
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.91 to 1.00)0.85 (0.76 to 0.95)0.79 (0.65 to 0.95)<0.0010.06
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)0.97 (0.93 to 1.02)0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)0.82 (0.68 to 0.99)0.0040.24
Aortic valve stenosis
  Cases (n=972)5613564114
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.89 to 1.16)0.90 (0.66 to 1.24)0.78 (0.46 to 1.33)0.290.26
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)1.06 (0.92 to 1.21)0.95 (0.69 to 1.31)0.83 (0.48 to 1.41)0.610.25
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)1.09 (0.95 to 1.26)1.00 (0.72 to 1.37)0.87 (0.51 to 1.41)0.890.20
Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  Cases (n=983)608324429
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.84 (0.74 to 0.97)0.82 (0.60 to 1.12)0.49 (0.25 to 0.94)0.030.12
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)0.93 (0.81 to 1.07)0.90 (0.65 to 1.24)0.56 (0.29 to 1.09)0.060.47
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)0.94 (0.82 to 1.08)0.92 (0.67 to 1.26)0.58 (0.30 to 1.13)0.890.53
Ischaemic stroke
  Cases (n=3782)2202133518065
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)0.95 (0.89 to 1.02)1.00 (0.86 to 1.16)0.93 (0.73 to 1.19)0.420.24
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)1.09 (0.93 to 1.27)1.01 (0.79 to 1.30)0.540.80
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.97 to 1.11)1.12 (0.96 to 1.31)1.03 (0.80 to 1.32)0.290.49
Intracerebral haemorrhage
  Cases (n=543)3062052210
  Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model*1.00 (reference)1.01 (0.84 to 1.21)0.83 (0.54 to 1.28)1.04 (0.55 to 1.95)0.780.28
  Multivariable model 1†1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.86 to 1.25)0.84 (0.54 to 1.30)1.00 (0.53 to 1.90)0.790.27
  Multivariable model 2†‡1.00 (reference)1.04 (0.86 to 1.25)0.84 (0.54 to 1.30)1.00 (0.53 to 1.89)0.770.29
  • *HRs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale and stratified by sex.

  • †HRs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models with age as the time scale and stratified by sex, and adjusted for education (less than high school, high school or university), family history of myocardial infarction before 60 years of age (yes/no), smoking (never, past <20 pack-years, past ≥20 pack-years, current <20 pack-years or current ≥20 pack-years), walking/bicycling (almost never,<20 min/day, 20–40 min/day or >40 min/day), exercise (<1 hour/week, 1–2 hours/week, 3–4 hours/week or ≥5 hours/week), aspirin use (never, 1–6 tablets/week or ≥7 tablets/week) and consumption of alcohol (never drinkers, past drinkers or current drinkers of <1 drink/week, 1–6 drinks/week, 7–14 drinks/week, 14–21 drinks/week or >21 drinks/week), fruits (quintiles), vegetables (quintiles) and total energy (kcal/day; continuous).

  • ‡HRs were adjusted for the same variables as in model 1 and further for potential intermediates of the nut–CVD relationship, including body mass index (<22.5, 22.5–24.9, 25.0–29.9 or ≥30.0 kg/m2), history of diabetes (yes/no), history of hypertension (yes/no) and history of hypercholesterolaemia (yes/no).

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease.