Objectives Assess the impact of end-stage renal disease (chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD5)) on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with Fabry disease on enzyme replacement therapy.
Background Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiovascular dysfunction.
Methods Cardiac and renal function of 25 male patients with Fabry disease were analysed at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 and 10 years after initiation of treatment. Patients were grouped at baseline into those with CKD5 (n=10) and those without (n=15). ECG and echocardiography were performed 6 and 12 monthly, respectively, while renal function was measured yearly.
Results After 10 years of treatment, cardiac and renal function in non-CKD5 patients remained unchanged. In contrast, CKD5 was associated with worse baseline cardiac parameters and progressive LV hypertrophy. LV mass index grew by 35.4±31.8 g/m2.7 in CKD5 versus 5.7±7.9 g/m2.7, p=0.044 in non-CKD5, predominantly due to increased interventricular septal wall thickness (7.7±5.5 mm vs 1.3±1.7 mm, p=0.003). Cardiovascular events, including sudden death, arrhythmia and pacing device insertion, occurred in 100% patients with CKD5 (21 events) and 26% non-CKD5 patients (7 events), p<0.0001. Additionally, estimated LV filling pressure (E/Ea) was significantly higher in patients having cardiovascular events (21.1±7.7 vs 12.5±4.5, p=0.008) irrespective of renal function.
Conclusions End-stage renal disease was the strongest indicator of cardiovascular disease progression in Fabry disease. Enzyme replacement initiated prior to CKD5 was associated with stability in cardiac and renal disease while patients with CKD5 showed ongoing deterioration. Additionally, E/Ea ≥15 may predict risk of cardiac events.
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