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Contributors The manuscript outline was designed by SC and BJC. SC performed the initial literature search and wrote the first draft. BJC and BI revised the manuscript critically. All authors reviewed and approved the final version.
Funding SC is supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre Programme. BJC acknowledges support from the British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, Oxford (British Heart Foundation grant no. RE/13/1/30181).
Disclaimer The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Department of Health.
Competing interests BI has received consultant fees from Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim, Valtech, and speaker's fees from Edwards Lifesciences.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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