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Regarding sex differences in cardiovascular ageing: let us not forget iron
  1. Mark R Goldstein1,
  2. Luca Mascitelli2,
  3. Leo R Zacharski3,4
  1. 1NCH Physician Group, Naples, Florida, USA
  2. 2Medical Service, Comando Brigata Alpina “Julia”/Multinational Land Force, Udine, Italy
  3. 3Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont, USA
  4. 4Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Mark R Goldstein, NCH Physician Group, 1845 Veterans Park Drive, Suite 110, Naples, FL 34109, USA; markrgoldstein{at}

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To the Editor, The interesting paper of Merz and Cheng did not mention iron as a plausible non-hormonal factor, which might in part explain the sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.1

Mounting evidence suggests that the metabolic derangements and detrimental cardiovascular effects usually attributed to menopause represent only a mere consequence of the older age of menopausal women, rather than related to the loss of ovarian function. In fact, heart protection by premenopausal levels of female hormones, that is, the oestrogen …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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