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Contemporary evaluation and management of lower extremity peripheral artery disease
  1. T Raymond Foley,
  2. Ehrin J Armstrong,
  3. Stephen W Waldo
  1. VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System and Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Stephen W Waldo, VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, 1055 Clermont Street, Denver, CO 80220, USA; stephen.waldo{at}


Peripheral artery disease (PAD) includes atherosclerosis of the aorta and lower extremities. Affecting a large segment of the population, PAD is associated with impaired functional capacity and reduced quality of life as well as an increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. The evaluation of PAD begins with the physical examination, incorporating non-invasive testing such as ankle-brachial indices to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic interventions are aimed at alleviating symptoms while preserving limb integrity and reducing overall cardiovascular risk. With this in mind, risk factor modification with exercise and medical therapy are the mainstays of treatment for many patients with PAD. Persistent symptoms or non-healing wounds should prompt more aggressive therapies with endovascular or surgical revascularisation. The following manuscript provides a comprehensive review on the contemporary evaluation and management of PAD.

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