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It is interesting to observe that details of cardiovascular anatomy become more relevant if novel therapeutic targets are on the horizon. Surgeons have always had a genuine interest in anatomy, along with close and continuous knowledge exchange with morphologists. Radiologists focus on the correlation of anatomical knowledge with various imaging techniques. However, the interventional cardiologist only began to show interest in detailed cardiovascular anatomy when novel transcatheter options became available to treat or palliate a wider range of structural cardiac defects. In the context of transcatheter therapies, some structures have really only been visualised in detail for the first time by modern imaging techniques. For the paediatric cardiologist, the detailed anatomy of the atrial and ventricular septum, the arterial duct, aortic isthmus or, in particular, the right ventricular outflow tract became obvious and relevant in consideration of device closure, stent or valve stent placement. For the adult cardiologist, advanced imaging has led to appreciation of the variation in anatomy of a functional patent foramen ovale, the spectrum of left atrial appendage shape and, last but not the least, has provided a detailed three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of the aortic and mitral valve apparatus for transcatheter valve replacement or percutaneous repair, respectively. In addition, transcatheter creation …
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