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The association between resting heart rate and type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults
  1. Dong-Il Kim1,2,
  2. Hyuk In Yang3,4,
  3. Ji-Hye Park3,4,
  4. Mi Kyung Lee3,4,
  5. Dong-Woo Kang5,
  6. Jey Sook Chae6,
  7. Jong Ho Lee7,
  8. Justin Y Jeon3,4,8
  1. 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Spaulding Hospital Cambridge, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  3. 3Exercise Medicine Center for Diabetes and Cancer Patients, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  4. 4Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  5. 5Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  6. 6Research Center for Silver Science, Institute of Symbiotic Life-TECH, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  7. 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  8. 8Cancer Prevention Center, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
  1. Correspondence to Professor Jong Ho Lee, Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea; jhleeb{at}


Objective The purpose of this study was to analyse the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults.

Methods A total of 5124 participants, who participated in the exercise programme at the National Health Promotion Center between 2007 and 2010 (male=904, female=4220) were analysed in this study. Anthropometrics, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP) and RHR were measured, and blood samples were collected after fasting for at least 12 hours.

Results To investigate the association between RHR and metabolic parameters, participants were divided into quartiles. Participants in the fourth quartile (RHR >80 beats per minute (bpm) showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic BP and glucose compared with participants in the first quartile (RHR <69 bpm). When logistic regression analyses were performed, participants in the fourth quartile of RHR had 2.76 times (95% CI 2.03 to 3.77; absolute risk (AR): 12.1% (166/1371)) higher odds of type 2 diabetes and 1.27 times (95% CI 1.04 to 1.55; AR: 22.2% (304/1371)) higher odds of hypertension compared with those in the first quartile of RHR (type 2 diabetes AR: 5.3% (71/1346); hypertension AR: 18.9% (254/1346)). Multiple regression analyses showed that both BMI and RHR were significantly associated with glucose and mean arterial pressure.

Conclusions RHR is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes and hypertension independent of age, gender, BMI, smoking, drinking and family history of disease. RHR in combination with BMI, and multiple linear regression analyses emphasise the importance of the association of RHR with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Korean adults.

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  • Contributors All authors analysed data, developed the study protocol and design and read, commented on, contributed to and approved the submitted manuscript. D-IK, HIY and JYJ were the main contributors to the writing of the manuscript. J-HP, MKL, D-WK and JSC contributed to the planning and interpretation of the study. As the corresponding authors and guarantors, JHL and JYJ are responsible for the overall content of this manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ministry of Health and Welfare, Government of Korea.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.