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Galectin-3 predicts left ventricular remodelling after anterior-wall myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention
  1. Giuseppe Di Tano1,
  2. Giorgio Caretta1,2,
  3. Renata De Maria3,
  4. Marina Parolini3,
  5. Laura Bassi4,
  6. Sophie Testa4,
  7. Salvatore Pirelli1
  1. 1Division of Cardiology, ASST—Hospital of Cremona, Cremona, Italy
  2. 2Division of Cardiology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy
  3. 3CNR Clinical Physiology Institute Cardiothoracic and Vascular Department ASST-Great Metropolitan Hospital Niguarda, Milan, Italy
  4. 4Division of Laboratory Medicine, ASST—Hospital of Cremona, Cremona, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Giorgio Caretta, Division of Cardiology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, ASL 5 Liguria—Via Vittorio Veneto, 197, La Spezia, 19124, Italy; giorgio.caretta{at}


Objectives Despite modern reperfusion therapies, left ventricular remodelling (LVR) occurs frequently after an ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) and represents a strong predictor of mortality and heart failure. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a novel biomarker involved in inflammation, tissue repair and fibrogenesis, might be a valuable predictor of LVR.

Methods We enrolled consecutively admitted patients with a first anterior STEMI and left anterior descending artery occlusion treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Gal-3, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), echocardiography and cardiovascular events were evaluated 48 hours after admission, at 1 and 6 months. LVR was defined as a ≥15% increase in LV end-systolic volume.

Results We recruited 103 patients (28% women, aged 64.6±12 years, LV ejection fraction 47±11%). Median baseline Gal-3 and NT-proBNP levels were 13.2 ng/mL (10.8–17.1 ng/mL) and 2132 pg/mL (1019–4860 pg/mL) respectively. During 6 months of follow-up, 4 patients dropped out, 7 died and 26 (28.3%) of the 92 survivors developed LVR (LVR+). LVR+ patients had higher Gal-3 levels at baseline, 1 and 6 months than LVR− (p<0.0001). By univariable logistic regression, age, female gender, higher baseline Gal-3 and NT-proBNP, smaller LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were associated to an increased risk of LVR. By multivariable analysis, only LVEDV (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99/1 mL change) and Gal-3 levels (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.42/1 ng/mL change) independently predicted LVR (C-statistics 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.93).

Conclusion Gal-3 serum levels measured during hospitalisation could be clinically useful in predicting LVR among patients admitted with anterior STEMI treated by pPCI.

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  • Contributors GDT, GC and SP designed of the study, submitted the study protocol to the ethics committee and collected the data. LB and ST performed laboratory tests. RDM, GC and MP performed data analysis and interpretation. GDT, GC, RDM and SP drafted the article and performed a critical revision. All authors contributed to the final approval of the version to be published.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Ethics Committee of ASST Cremona Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.