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Original research article
Sex disparities in ideal cardiovascular health
  1. Marie Simon1,
  2. Pierre Boutouyrie1,2,3,
  3. Kumar Narayanan1,4,
  4. Bamba Gaye1,2,
  5. Muriel Tafflet1,2,
  6. Frédérique Thomas5,
  7. Catherine Guibout1,2,
  8. Marie-Cécile Périer1,2,
  9. Bruno Pannier5,
  10. Xavier Jouven1,2,6,
  11. Jean-Philippe Empana1,2
  1. 1 Department of Epidemiology, INSERM, UMR-S970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, Paris, France
  2. 2 Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, Paris, France
  3. 3 Department of Pharmacology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris, France
  4. 4 Maxcure Hospitals, Hyderabad, India
  5. 5 Preventive and Clinical Investigation Center, Paris, France
  6. 6 Department of Cardiology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, APHP, Paris, France
  1. Correspondence to Marie Simon, INSERM U970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center(PARCC), 56 Rue Leblanc 75015 Paris, France; simon.marie86{at}


Objective To quantify the gap in the distribution of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) between men and women accounting for comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychological confounding factors.

Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 9012 French men and women aged 50-75 years who were participants of the Paris Prospective Study 3. Each of the seven metrics was defined according to the American Heart Association criteria, and the CVH was considered as poor (0 or 1 ideal health metric), intermediate (2, 3 or 4 ideal health metrics) and ideal (5-7 ideal health metrics). The odds of intermediate and ideal CVH in women compared with men were estimated by multivariate polytomous logistic regression analysis using poor CVH as the reference category.

Results The mean age was 59.49 year (SD 6.25) and there were 38.54% of women. Though women were slightly older, less educated, more deprived, more often depressed, they were twice more often in ideal CVH than men (14.77% vs 6.84%, p<0.0001). After adjustment for age, deprivation score, education and depression, women were four times more often in ideal CVH (OR 4.01, 95% CI 3.42 to 4.69) and two times more often in intermediate CVH (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.88 to 2.28) than men.

Conclusion The sex disparities in the prevalence of ideal CVH have the potential to guide sex-specific strategies for improving CVH status in the general population.

Clinical trial registration NCT00741728;Pre-results.

  • c ardiovascular disease
  • gender
  • prevention
  • social inequalities
  • epidemiology

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  • Contributors MS was involved in drafting the manuscript and statistical analysis. MT, FT, CG and MCP substantially contributed to the acquisition of the data. MT, MCP, KN and BG substantially contributed to the interpretation of the data. PB, BP, XJ and JPE substantially contributed to the design of the work. JPE supervised the work. All co-authors were involved in the critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual contents. All authors contributed to the final approval of the manuscript.

  • Funding The PPS3 Study was supported by grants from The National Research Agency (ANR), the Research Foundation for Hypertension (FRHTA), the Research Institute in Public Health (IRESP) and the Region Ile de France(Domaine d’Intérêt Majeur). BG was supported by a grant from the French ministry of research and education.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics Committee of the Cochin Hospital (Paris, France)

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.