Introduction Hyperglycemia-induced ROS generation within mitochondria plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Mitochondria are one of the most important cell organelles in diabetes research because of its crucial role as a regulator of energy balance. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect galangin, a flavonoid, on oxidative mitochondrial damage in in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and methods Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of low dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)) into male albino Wistar rats. Galangin (8 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Results Diabetic rats showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in kidney and heart mitochondrial oxidant (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) levels and a significant decrease in enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione) antioxidants levels as compared to control rats. The activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes such as NADH dehydrogenase and Cytochrome c-oxidase were decreased significantly (p<0.05) in diabetic rats as compared to control rats. Administration of galangin to diabetic rats resulted in the following findings as compared to diabetic control rats: the oxidant levels decreased significantly (p<0.05); the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants levels increased significantly (p<0.05); and the function of mitochondrial enzymes and the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes increased significantly (p<0.05).
Conclusion From the results, we conclude that galangin could maintain kidney and heart mitochondrial function in diabetic rats.
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