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Hormone use missing from UK Biobank cardiovascular disease study
  1. Ellen Catherine Grant
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ellen Catherine Grant, Retired, Kingston upon Thames, UK; ellengrant{at}

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Peters and Woodward’s epidemiological study found that early menarche, early menopause, earlier age at first birth and a history of miscarriage, stillbirth or hysterectomy were each independently associated with a higher risk of CVD in later life.1 However, early menarche and early age of first birth could relate to younger starting age and longer use of progestogen and/or oestrogen contraception. Hysterectomy and early menopause can relate to younger starting age and longer use …

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